Political Law Review

COURSE OUTLINE:
PART I – INTRODUCTION
I. BASIC PRINCIPLES
A. Politics, Government, Administration, Power, Authority: definitions, concepts, distinctions
B. Scope of Political Law Review
1. Constitutional Law
2. Administrative Law
3. Law on Public Officers
4. Election Laws
5. Local Government
6. Public International Law

II. THE STATE

A. Concept and Definition

– Distinguished from nation
– Origin, Theories

B. Territory

1. Definition

2. Components

3. The Philippine Archipelago, Article 1

a. Article III, Treaty of Paris, Dec 10, 1898 (Spain ceded the P.I. to the U.S.)
b. US-Spain Treaty, Nov 7, 1900 (Cagayan, Sulu, and Sibutu)
c. US-Great Britain Treaty, Jan 2, 1930 (Turtle and Mangsee Islands)
d. 1935 Constitution (Batanes)
e. 1973 Constitution (territories by historic right or legal title)
f. RA 3046, Jun 17, 1961
g. RA 5446, Sep 8, 1968 (Sabah claim)
h. PD 1596, Jun 11, 1978 (other territories, claim over KIG)
i. PD 1599, Jun 11, 1978 (200 miles EEZ)
j. UNCLOS I, II and III (1994) (Archipelagic principle, right of innocent passage, right to sea lane passage)
k. RA 9522 (demarcation of maritime zone and continental shelf under UNCLOS III)
Cases:
– Magalona v Ermita, 655 SCRA 476 (2011), (demarcation of maritime zones)
– Capitol Wireless v Provincial Treasurer of Batangas, GR 180110, May 30, 2016

C. People

1. Definition
As inhabitants, Article III, Sections 1 &2; Article II, Sections 15 & 16
As electors, Article VII, Section 4; Article XVI, Section 2
As citizens. Article II, Sections 1 & 4; Article III, Section 7

D. Government

1. Definition
– Government of the Republic of the Philippines defined, Sec 2 (1) Administrative Code

2. Constituent vs Ministrant functions

3. Parens Patriae

Cases:
-Government v Monte de Piedad, 35 Phil 728 (1916)
– Cabanas v Pilapil, L-25843, Jul 25, 1974

4. De Jure government, Criteria for legitimacy

5. De facto government, kinds and characteristics

a. Doctrine of suspended allegiance
b. Belligerent Occupation

Case: Co Kim Cham v Valdez Tan Keh, GR L-5, Sep 17, 1945

6. Classifications, Forms of governments

a. based on number of rulers
b. based on accountability to the people
c. based on the economic system
d. based on legislative-executive relations
e. based on divisions of the State

E. Sovereignty

1. Definition
2. Dual Aspect, Kinds and Characteristics
3. Dominium & Imperium
4. Effects of Change in Sovereignty
5. Effects of military occupation
6. Territorial, personal and extraterritorial jurisdiction
7. Acts of State
8. Auto-limitation

III. THE PHILIPPINE CONSTITUTION

A. Constitution: definition, nature and concepts

B. Parts

C. History and Background

– The Philippine Revolution and the Malolos Constitution
– Organic Laws under the American Period
– McKinley’s Instructions (Apr 7, 1900)
– Spooner Amendment (1901)
– Philippine Bill of 1902
– Philippine Autonomy Act or Jones Law (1916)
– Japanese Occupation
– 1935 Constitution
– 1973 Constitution
– 1986 People Power Revolution and the Freedom Constitution
– 1987 Constitution

D. Amendments and Revisions, Article XVII, Sections 1, 2 & 3

Cases:
Santiago v Comelec, 270 SCRA 106 (1997)
Lambino v Comelec, 505 SCRA 160 (2006)

E. Self-executing and non-executing provisions

F. Supremacy of the Constitution

Case: Manila Prince Hotel v GSIS, 267 SCRA 408 (1997)

G. Rules on interpretation of the Constitution

IV. GENERAL CONSIDERATIONS

A. State Immunity

1. Basis: Article XVI, Section 3
2. When is a suit against a State?
3. Express Consent

a. Money Claims arising from contract

– Act 3083
– CA 327, as amended by PD 1445

Case: UP v Dizon, 679 SCRA 54 (2012)

b. Torts committed by special agents

– NCC, Article 2180

c. Incorporated Government Agencies (Note: Unincorporated government agencies exercising proprietary functions may be sued)

4. Implied Consent

a. Government submits itself to court’s jurisdiction / The State itself files a complaint

Cases:
– RP v Sandiganbayan, GR 129406, Mar 6, 2006
– Santiago v GRP, GR L- 48214, (87 SCRA 294), Dec 19, 1978
– DOTC v Sps. Abecina, GR 206484, Jan 29, 2016

b. Government entering into business contracts
c. When inequitable for government to claim immunity

5. Suits against municipal corporations

– RA 7160, Sections 22 & 24

6. Suits against foreign states, Vienna Convention on Diplomatic Immunity

Cases:
– Arigo v Swift, 735 SCRA 102 (2014)
– Minucher v CA, GR 142396, Feb 11,2003
– Rep. of Indonesia v Vinzon, GR 154705, Jun 26, 2003
– ATCI v Echin, GR 178551, Oct 11, 2010

7. Suits International Agencies, Convention on the Privileges and Immunities of Specialized Agencies of the United Nations

8. Suits against public officers; exceptions

B. Delegation of powers

1. Rule, Maxim
2. Exceptions

a. By direct constitutional grant

– Tariff powers to the President, Article VI, Section 28 (2)
– Emergency powers to the President, Article VI, Section 23 (2); Article XII, Section 12
– Rule making power to the Supreme Court, Article VIII, Section 5 (5)
– Delegation to local government units, Article X, Section 5
– Rule making powers of the Constitutional Commissions, Article IX-A, Section 6; Article IX-C, Section 3; Article IX-D, Section 2 (2)
– Delegation to Commission on Human Rights, Article XIII, Section 18

b. By legislative grant

i. Delegation to administrative bodies (rule-making power)
Case: NPC Drivers and Mechanical Association v Napocor, 503 SCRA 138 (2006)

ii. Requisites for valid rules and regulations

1.1. R&R are authorized by the legislature
2.2. R&R’s scope is within the authority given by the legislature
3.3. R&R must be according to prescribed procedure of the law
4.4. R&R must be reasonable (publication necessary)

iii. Kinds of rules and regulations

1.1. supplemental R&R
2.2. interpretative R&R (no publication required)
3.3. contingent R&R

iv. Quasi-legislative vs Quasi-judicial functions

v. Delegation to local government units (ordinances as subordinate
legislation)

Case: Sema v Comelec, 558 SCRA 700 (2008)

1.1. Police Power: Two Branches of General Welfare Clause (Local Governments):

– General legislative power and Police Power proper

Cases:
– US v Salaveria, 39 Phil 102
– Fernando v St. Scholastica-s College, GR 161107 (2013)

2.2. Eminent Domain: Genuine Necessity of Taking
3.3. Taxation: Expressly granted by law

3. Tests for due delegation of power

a. Completeness Test
b. Sufficient Standard Test

Case: Pelaez v Auditor General, 15 SCRA 569 (1965)

C. Separation of powers / Checks and Balance

Cases:
– Belgica v Ochoa, Jr., 710 SCRA 1 (2013) (Cross Border Transfer)
-Mendoza v People, 659 SCRA 681 (2011)

V. STATE PRINCIPLES AND POLICIES, Article II

A. Preamble

1. Nature, purpose and aims

B. Principles

1. Democratic and Republican State, Article II, Section 1

a. Manifestations of Democracy and Republicanism

i. Rule of the majority
ii. Rule of law
iii. Elections through popular will
iv. Existence of bill of rights

Case: Province of North Cotabato v GRP Peace Panel on Ancestral Domain, 568 SCRA 402 (2008) (Associative State/Bangsamoro)

2. Adoption of International Law, Article II , Section 2

a. Renunciation of war
b. International law

i. Sources of International law

c. International customary law

i. objective element / material factor (Settled practice of States)
ii. subjective element (belief that the practice is obligatory / opinion juris)

d. Examples of international customary law

i. jus cogens vs jus dispositivum
ii. obligatio erga omnes
iii. action popularis
iv. universal jurisdiction

e. Incorporation Doctrine vs Transformation Doctrine

Case: Deutsche Bank AG Manila Branch v CIR, 704 SCRA 216 (2013)

f. Adherence to peace, equality, justice, freedom, cooperation, amity with nations

g. Rights of Refugees

h. Extradition:

i. Doctrine of Double Criminality
ii. Doctrine of Speciality

3. Civilian supremacy; Role of the military, Article II , Section 3

a. Commander-in-chief clause, Article VII, Section 18
b. AFP in active service, Article XVI, Section 5 (4)
c. Respect for people’s rights Article XVI, Section 5 (2)

4. Duty and Role of Government, Article II , Sections 4 and 5

5. Separation of Church and State, Article II , Section 6

a. Freedom of Religion, Article III, Section 5

Case: Republic v Manalo, GR 221029, Apr 4, 2018

b. Political party ban on sects, Article IX-C, 2 (5)
c. No sectoral representative from religious sector, Article VI, Section 5 (2)
d. Tax exemption of churches, Article VI, Section 28 (3)
e. Non appropriations for sects; exemptions, Article VI, Section 29 (2)
f. Optional religious instruction, Article XIV, Section 3 (3)
g. Filipino ownership for schools; exceptions, Article XIV, Section 4 (2)

C. Policies

1. Independent foreign policy and nuclear free Philippines, Article II, Sections 7-8

a. Foreign military bases, Article XVIII, Sections 4 and 25
b. Treaty vs Executive Agreement

Cases:
– Saguisag v Executive Secretary Ochoa, GR 212426, Jul 26, 2016 (EDCA) – Mitsubishi Corp. v BIR, GR 75772, Jun 5, 2017 (Exchange of notes)

2. Just and dynamic social order

a. Social justice, Article II, Section 10, Article XII, Sections 1 (2)
Case: Central Azucarera de Bais v Heirs of Apostol, GR 215314, Mar 14, 2018

b. Respect for human dignity and human rights, Article XIII, Sections 1, 17-19

c. Role of women; Fundamental equality of women and men, Article II, Section 14; Article XIII, Section 14

– RA 9262 – Anti Violence Against Women and their Children (2004)

Cases:
-Garcia v Drilon, 699 SCRA 352 (2013)
– Racho v Tanaka, GR 199515, Jun 25, 2018

d. Independent people’s organization, Article II , Section 23; Article XIII, Sections 15-16

e. Priority of education, science, technology, arts vulture and sports, Article II, Section 23; Article XIII, Sections 15-16; Article XIV, Sections 1-19

f. Urban land reform and housing, Article XIII, Sections 9-10

– RA 7279 – Urban Development and Housing Act

g. Reform in agriculture and other natural resources, Article II, Section 21, Article XIII, Sections 4-8

– PD 27 – Land Reform Act
– RA 6657 -Comprehensive and Agrarian Reform Law (1998)

h. Protection to labor, Article II, Section 18; Article XIII, Section 3

– PD 442 – Labor Code of the Philippines

Case: Hubilla v HSY Marketing, Ltd., GR 207254, Jan 10, 2018

i. Promotion of health and ecology, Article II, Sections 15 and 16; Article XIII, Section 11

Case: Oposa v Factoran, GR 101083 (1993)

– RA 7277 – Magna Carta for Disabled Persons

j. Self-reliant and independent economic order, Article II, Sections 19-20

k. Role of the private sector, Article II, Section 20

l. Role of People’s Organizations, Article II, Section 23; Article XIII, Sections 15-16

3. The family and role of the youth, Article II, Sections 12 and 13, Article XV, Sections 1-4

a. Family as a basic autonomous social institution

– EO 209 – Family Code of the Philippines

Case: Republic v Albios, 707 SCRA 584 (2013)

– PD 603 – Child and Youth Welfare Code
– RA 7610 – Special Protection of Children Against Abuse, Exploitation and Discrimination Act
– RA 8044 – Youth in Nation Building Act (Creating the National Youth Commission; Establishing a National Comprehensive and Coordinated Program on Youth Development))
– RA 9262 – Anti Violence Against Women and their Children (2004)
– RA 9344 – Juvenile Delinquency Act, as amended by RA 10630

b. Protection of the mother and the unborn

– RA 10354 – Reproductive Health and Responsible Parenthood Act (2012)

Case: Imbong v Ochoa, 721 SCRA 146 (2014)

c. Natural and primary right and duty of parents

4. Communication and information in nation building, Section 24; Article XVI, Sections 1— 11; Article XVIII, Section 23

– EO 02 (2016)

5. Rights of indigenous cultural communities, Article II , Section 22; Article VI, Section 5 (2); Article XII, Section 5; Article XIII, Section 6; Article XIV, Section 17; Article XVI, Sec 12

– RA 8371 – Indigenous People’s Rights Act (1997)

Case: Province of North Cotabato v GRP Peace Panel on Ancestral Domain, 568 SCRA 402 (2008), (within the framework of national unity)

6. Honest public service, Article II, Sections 27-28

a. Ombudsman, Article XI, Sections 4-6
b. Full public disclosure, Article II , Section 28
c. SALN, Article XI, Sections 17
– RA 3019 – Anti Graft and Corrupt Practices Act
d. President’s health, Article VII, Section 12
e. Publication of loan applications, Article VII, Section 20
f. Public foreign loans, Article XII, Section 21
g. Contracts with foreign groups, Article XII, Section 2 (5)
h. Conflict of Interest, books of account, Article VII, Sections 12 and 20
i. COA annual report, Article IX-D, Section 4
j. Right to information, Article III, Section 7
k. Equality of opportunity; political dynasty, Article II, Section 26

Case: Ang Ladlad v Comelec, 618 SCRA 32 (2010)

– RA 6713 – Code of Conduct and Ethical Standards for Public Officials and Employees (1989)

7. Autonomy of local governments, Article II, Section 25; Article X

– RA 7160 (LGC)

a. Kinds of Autonomy: Administrative Autonomy v Political Autonomy
Case: Limbona v Conte Mangelin, 170 SCRA 786

b. Devolution, Section 17, RA 7160, Local Government Code of 1991

c. Deconcentration of powers, Section 528, RA 7160

VI. CITIZENSHIP, Article IV

A. Definition, importance, distinguished from nationality

B. Rights and duties of a citizen

C. Modes of acquiring citizenship Article IV, Section 3

1. Involuntary: by birth (natural born citizen); Principles governing them

a. jus soli
b. jus sanguini, Article IV, Section 2

2. Voluntary: by naturalization (naturalized citizen)

a. Direct naturalization

i Judicial naturalization; CA 63, CA 473, RA 530

1.1. Substantive requirements: Qualifications & Disqualifications
2.2 Procedural requirements

Cases:
– So v RP, 513 SCRA 267 (2007)
– Republic v Go Pei Hung, GR212785, Apr 4, 2018

ii. Administrative naturalization; RA 9139 (2001)

1.1. Substantive requirements: Qualifications & Disqualifications
2.2. Procedural requirements

iii. Legislative naturalization

1.1. Special naturalization laws
2.2. Mass naturalization law; Philippine Bill of 1902
3.3. General law on naturalization; LOI 270 (1978)

b. Derivative naturalization

i. wife
ii. minor children
iii. alien woman upon marrying a Filipino

D. Modes of losing citizenship, Article IV, Section 3

1. Involuntary

a. by denaturalization (cancellation of certificate of naturalization)
b. found by final judgment to be a deserter of war

2. Voluntary

a. by expatriation

i. by naturalization in a foreign country
ii. by express renunciation of Philippine citizenship, Article Iv, Section 4
iii. by taking an oath of allegiance to a foreign country; exception: Doctrine of Indelible Allegiance

E. Modes of reacquiring citizenship

1. by naturalization

2. by repatriation

a. Commonwealth Act 63 (deserted AFP)
b. RA 965 (1963) (served Allied Forces in World War II)
c. RA 2630 (1960) (deserted US Armed Forces)
d. PD 725 (natural born Filipinos who lost citizenship)
e. RA 8171 (1995) (lost citizenship due to marriage, politics or economics)

– how is repatriation accomplished?

f. RA 9225 (Sep 17, 2003) (Citizenship Retention and Acquisition Act of 2003)

– Effect of acquisition of foreign citizenship before RA 9225
– Effect of acquisition of foreign citizenship under RA 9225
Cases:
– Maquiling v Comelec, 696 SCRA 420 (2013) & 700 SCRA 367 (2013)
– David v Agbay, GR 1991113, Mar 18, 2015

3. by law (direct act of Congress)

F. Who are citizens of the Philippines? Article IV, Section 1

1. Filipino citizens before the 1987 Constitution

a. citizens under the 1973 Constitution
b. citizens under the 1935 Constitution
c. citizens under the Philippine Bill of 1902

2. those born with Filipino father or mother

3. those who elect Philippine citizenship pursuant to the 1935 Constitution

a. elect Philippine citizenship under the 1935 Constitution
b. elect Philippine citizenship under the 1973 Constitution
c. elect Philippine citizenship under the 1987 Constitution
d. Procedure in electing Philippine citizenship; CA 625

Case: Republic v Sagun, 666 SCRA 321 (2012)

4. naturalized Filipino citizens under the 1987 Constitution

G. Dual / Multiple citizenship; effects; RA 9225 (2003)

a. how acquired: by birth, by naturalization
b. dual citizenship distinguished from dual allegiance, Article IV, Section 5

H. Foundling

– 1930 Hague Convention on Questions Relating to Conflict of International Laws, Article 14
– United Nations Convention on Reduction of Statelessness, Article 2
– UN Universal Declaration of Human Rights (UDHR)
– Case: David vs Poe-Llamanzares, GR 221538, Sep 20, 2016

VII. SUFFRAGE, Article V; ELECTION LAWS

A. Definition, nature

B. Scope

1. Election

– Batas Pambansa 881, Omnibus Election Code (1985)

2. Plebiscite, Article X, Sections 10, 11, 18

3. Initiative, Article XVII, Section 2

– RA 6735, Initiative and Referendum Act
– RA 7160, Local Government Code of 1991, Sections 120-126
– Limitations on local initiative, Section 124
– Limitations upon the Sanggunian , Section 125

4. Referendum, Article VI, Section, 32; RA 7160 Sections127

5. Recall, Article X, Section 3; RA 7160, Section 69-75

– Prohibition from resignation, Section 73
– Limitations on Recall, Section 74

C. Qualifications and disqualifications of voters, Article V, Section 1

– RA 8189 – Voter’s Registration Act (1996)
– RA 10637 – Mndatory Biometrics Voters’ Registration Act
– Case: Kabataan Party List v Comelec, GR 221318 (2010)

D. Secrecy and sanctity of the ballot, Article V, Section 2

– RA 9369 – Election Automation Law

E. System of Absentee Voting, Article V, Section 2;

– RA 9189 – Overseas Absentee Voting Act (2003) , as amended by RA 10590 The Overseas Voting Act of 2013
– RA 7166 – (Synchronized Elections), Section 12 – Absentee Voting for AFP, PNP and government employees assigned to places where they are not registered voters
– RA 10380 – An Act Providing for Local Absentee Voting for Media

PART II – THE NATIONAL GOVERNMENT

I. LEGISLATIVE DEPARTMENT, Article VI

A. Who may exercise legislative power, Article VI, Section 1

1. Congress
2. Regional / local legislative power

3. People’s Initiative on Statutes

a. Initiative and Referendum

4. The President under a martial law rule or in a revolutionary government

B. Houses of Congress: Composition, Qualification and Term of Office

1. Senate, Article VI, Sections 2-4

2. House of Representatives, Article VI , Sections 5-8

a. District Representatives and Questions of Apportionment

Cases:
– Aquino III v Comelec, 617 SCRA 623 (2010)
– Alaba v Comelec, 611 SCRA 147 (2010)
– Naval v Comelec, 729 SCRA 299 (2014)
– Bagabuyo v Comelec, 573 SCRA 290 (2008)
– Reyes v Comelec, 699 SCRA 522 (2013) and 708 SCRA 197 (2013)

b. Party-list System, RA 7941

Cases:
– BANAT v Comelec, 586 SCRA 210 (2009) and 592 SCRA 294 (2009)
– Atong Paglaum, Inc. v Comelec, 694 SCRA 477 (2013)
– Coalition of Asso. of Senior Citizens in the Phil. v Comelec, 201 SCRA 786 (2013)
– Lico v Comelec, GR 205505, Sep 29, 2015
– Abang Lingkod v Comelec, 708 SCRA 133 (2013)
– Akbayan v HRET, 612 SCRA 375 (2010)

3. Election:

a. Regular election, Article VI , Section 8
b. Special election, Article VI , Section 9

4. Organization and Sessions

a. Election of officers, Article VI , Section 16 (1)
b Rules of proceedings, Article VI , Section 16 (3) and 21

c. Journal and Record, Article VI , Section, 16 (4)

– Journal v Enrolled Bill
– Congressional Record, Article VI , Section 16 (4) par. 2

d. Regular, Special and Joint Sessions
e. Salaries, Article VI , Section 10, Article XVIII, Section 17

C. Qualifications, Privileges, Inhibitions and Disqualifications

1. Age, Citizenship, Residence, Literacy and other Qualifications

Case: David vs Poe-Llamanzares, GR 221538, Sep 20, 2016

2. Freedom from arrest, Article VI , Section 11; Privileged Speech and Debate Clauses, Section 11

3. Incompatible and Prohibited Offices, Article VI , Sections 13, 14

Case: Liban v Gordon, 593 SCRA 68 (2009) and 639 SCRA 709 (2011)

4. Duty to disclose, Article XI, Section 17, Article VI, Sections 12, 20

D. Quorum and voting majorities, Article VI, Section 16 (2)

E. Discipline of members, Article VI , Section 16 (3)

Case: Pobre v Defensor-Santiago, 597 SCRA 1 (2009)

F. Powers of Congress

1. Legislative

a. Legislative Inquiry and Oversight Functions, Article VI , Sections 21 & 22

Cases:
– Makalintal v Comelec, GR 157013, Jul 10, 2003
– Abakada Guro Party List v Purisima, GR 166715, Aug 14, 2008
– Balag v Senate Committee on Public Order, GR 234608, Jul 3, 2018 (Contempt power of Congress)

b. Bicameral Conference Committee

c. Limitations on legislative power

– Limitation on Revenue, Appropriations and Tariff Measures
– Presidential Veto and Congressional Override
– Prohibition against passage of irrepealable laws

d. Passage of laws

– Requirement as to bills

– As to titles of bills, Article VI, Section 26 (1)

Case: Imbong v Ochoa, 721 SCRA 146 (2014)

– How does a bill become a law?
– Effectivity of laws, NCC, Article 2

2. Non-legislative

a. National Board of Canvassers, Article VIi, Section 4 (4)
b. Calling for special election, Article VII, Section 10
c. Decide temporary disability of the President, Article VII, Section 11
d. Veto or extension of habeas corpus and martial law, Article VII, Section 18
e. Approval of amnesty, Article VII, Section 19
h. Senate concurrence in treaties, Article VII, Section 21
i. Declaring a state of war or national emergency, Article VI, Section 23
j. Utilization of natural resources, Article XII, Section 2
k. Constituent assembly to amend or revise the Constitution, Article XVII, Sections 2-4
l. Initiate impeachment, Article XI, Section 2
m. HRET and SET, Article VI, Section 17
n. Commission on Appointments, Article VI, Section 18

o. Approve national budget Article VI, Section 25

Cases:
– Belgica v Ochoa, Jr., GR 208566, Nov 19, 2013 (Cross border transfer) – Araullo v Aquino III, GR 209287, Jul 1, 2014 (Augmentation Power; Impoundment)

p. JBC (one seat)
r. Informing power (SONA)

II. EXECUTIVE DEPARTMENT, Article VII

A. The President

1. Qualifications, election, term and oath, Article VII, Sections 1, 4 & 5

Case: Macalintal v PET, 635 SCRA 783 (2010), 651 SCRA 239 (2011)

2. Privileges, Prohibition, Inhibitions and Disqualifications, Article VII, Sections 6, 13

Case: Pormento v Estrada, 629 SCRA 530 (2010)

3. Presidential immunity

B. Powers and Functions

1. Executive and administrative powers in general
2. Power of appointment and removal, Article VII, Sections 13-16

a. In general

Cases:
– Funa v Ermita, 612 SCRA 308 (2010)
– Funa v Agra, 691 SCRA 196 (2013)

b. Commission on Appointments confirmation

– permanent or temporary
– regular or ad interim

c. Midnight appointments

Cases:
– De Castro v JBC, 615 SCRA 666 (2010)
– Velicaria-Garafil v O.P. GR 203372, Jun 16, 2015

3. Power of control and supervision, Article VII, Section 17

a. Doctrine of qualified political agency / alter ego principle

Case: Hontiveros-Baraquel v Toll Regulatory Board, GR 181293, Feb 23, 2015

b. Executive departments and offices

c. General supervision over local government units, Article X

– Direct and indirect supervision, RA 7160, Local Government Code of 1991

4. Military powers (Commander-in Chief), Article VII, Section 18; Article II, Section 15; Article VIII, Section 1 (2)

a. calling out power
b. Habeas Corpus

c. Martial law

Cases:
– Kulayan v Tan, 675 SCRA 482 (2012)
– Ampatuan v Puno, 651 SCRA 228 (2011)
– Fortun v Macapagal-Arroyo 668 SCRA 504 (2012)
– Lagman v Medialdea, GR 231658, Jul 4, 2017

5. Pardoning powers, Section 19, Article IX-C, Section 5

a, Nature and limitations

Cases:
– Monsanto v Factoran, Jr., 170 SCRA 190 (1989)
– Risos-Vidal v Comelec, 747 SCRA 210 (2015)

b. Forms of executive clemency

6. Diplomatic power (Treaty making), Article XII, Section 21

Cases:
– Saguisag v Ochoa, Jr. GR 212426 and 212444, Jan 12, 2016
– Bayan v Executive Secretary, GR 138570, Oct 10, 2000
– Treaty vs Executive Agreement

7. Powers relative to revenue, appropriation and tariff measures; Limitations Article Vi, Sections 24 & 25

Case: Araullo v Aquino III, 728 SCRA 1 (2014) and 749 SCRA 284 (2015)

8. Borrowing power, Article VII, Section 20
9. Budgetary power, Article VII, Section, 22
10. Informing power, Article VII, Section 23

11. Delegated powers

a. Emergency power, Article VI, Section 23 (2)
b. Tariff power, Article VI, Section 28 (2)

12. Veto powers, Article VI, Section 27
13. Residual powers

14. Executive privilege

Case: Neri v Senate Committee on Accountability of Public Officers and Investigations, 549 SCRA 77 (2008) and 564 SCRA 152 (2008)

C. Rules of Succession

1. President, Article VII, Sections 7-8

a. Before assumption of office
b. Upon assumption of office
c. temporary incapacity

2. Vice President, Article VII, Sections 3, 7-9

III. JUDICIAL DEPARTMENT, Article VIII

A. Judicial Power

1. Adjudicatory power

a. Involving rights legally demandable, Article VIII, Section 5 (1)
b. Affecting ambassadors, public ministers and consuls
c. PET = SC

2. Judicial Review

a. Acts of Judicial Department: lower courts, Article VIII , Section 5 (2)
b. Acts of Executive Department
c. Acts of Legislative Department

Requisites for Judicial Review of a constitutional issue

1. Actual case or controversy

– justiciable question
– not moot and academic; exceptions
– ripe for judicial action

2. Issue must be raised by proper party (locus standi); exceptions

Cases:
– Resident Mammals v Reyes, GR 180771, Apr 21, 2015; (Epistolary Jurisdiction)
– Oposa v Factoran, 224 SCRA 792 (1993) (Intergenerational rights)
– Saguisag v Ochoa, Jr. GR 212426 and 212444, Jan 12, 2016 (supra)

3. Issue must be raised at the earliest opportunity; exceptions
4. Necessity of deciding the constitutional question (lis mota)

e. Functions of Judicial Review
f. Judicial Restraint; Limitations on the exercise of Judicial Review

3. Incidental powers

B. Rule-Making Powers, Article VIII, Section 6 (5)

1. Protection and enforcement of constitutional rights
2. Pleading, practice in all courts
3. Admission to the practice of law
4. IBP: discipline and practice of law
5. Legal assistance to the underprivileged

C. Auxiliary Administrative Powers

1. Detailing of lower court judges, Article VIII , Section 5 (3)
2. Change of venue or place of trial, Article VIII , Section 5 (4)
3. Power of appointment, Article VIII , Section 5 (6)
4. Discipline lower court judges, Article VIII , Section 11
5. Administrative supervision over all courts and court personnel, Article VIII , Section 6
6. Fiscal autonomy, Article VIII , Section 3
7. Annual report, Article VIII , Section 16
8. Supervision of JBC, Article VIII , Section 8 (5)
9. Plenary powers over the bar, Article VIII , Section 8 (5)
10. Supervisory power over IBP, Article VIII , Section 8 (5)

Cases:
– Domingo v Revilla, AC 5473, Jan 25, 2018
– Trovela v Robles, Jun 4, 2018

D. Concepts, definitions, distinctions

1. Political v Justiciable Question

Case: Ocampo v Enriquez, GR 225973, Nov 8, 2016

2. Ministerial v Discretionary Functions
3. Judgment v Discretion
4. Substantive v Procedural Law
5. Substantive v Procedural Rights

Case: People v Teng Moner y Adam, GR 202206, Mar 5, 2018

6. Facial Challenge v As Applied Challenge

a. Void for Vagueness Doctrine
b. Overbroad Doctrine

Cases:
– Southern Hemisphere Engagement Network, Inc. v Anti-Terrorism Council. 632 SCRA 146 (2010)
– Estrada v Sandigabnayan, GR 148560, Nov 19, 2001

E. Effects of declaration of unconstitutionality of law / act

1. Orthodox v Modern View
2. Operative Fact Doctrine

Case: Araullo v Aquino III, 728 SCRA 1 (2014) and 749 SCRA 284 (2015)

F. Modes of review and other judicial actions

G. Jurisdiction and Organization of courts

1. SC: en banc v division cases, Article VIII, Sections 4 (1-3)

– SC Circular No. 2-89

a. Cases decided vs. Matters resolved

Case: Fortich v Corona, GR 131457, Aug 19, 1999

2. General v Limited jurisdiction
3. Original v Appellate jurisdiction
4. Exclusive v Concurrent jurisdiction
5. Criminal v Civil jurisdiction
6. Regular v Special courts; Quasi-judicial bodies

H. Additional functions and powers for the Chief Justice

1. Presiding officer in the Impeachment court, Article XI, Section 3 (6)
2. Chair, Judicial and Bar Council, Article VIII, Section 8
3. Chair, Presidential Electoral Tribunal, Article VII, Section 4
4. Supervisory powers over all Justices and Judges, Article VIII, Section 6
5. Control & supervision over all officials & employees of Judiciary, Article VIII, Section 6

I. Safeguards of Judicial Independence

Cases:
– Re: COA Opinion on the Appraised Value of the Properties Purchased for the retired Chief/Associate Justices of SC, 678 SCRA 1 (2012)
– Re: Request for Guidance/Clarification on Section 7, Rule 111, RA 10154 requiring
government employees to secure a clearance of pendency/non-pendency of cases from CSC, 706 SCRA 502 (2013)
– Re: Save the SC Judicial Independence and Fiscal Autonomy Movement v Abolition of Judiciary development Fund (JDF) and Reduction of Fiscal Autonomy UDK-15143, Jan 21, 2015

J. Judicial Privilege

Case: Re: Petition for recognition of the exemption of the GSIS from payment of legal fees, 612 SCRA 193 (2010)

K. Appointments to the Judiciary

Cases:
– Chavez v JBC, 676 SCRA 579 (2012) and 696 SCRA 496 (2013)
– Aguinaldo v Aquino III, GR 224302, Nov. 29, 2016 (Clustering)

L. Qualifications of Justices and Judges, Article VIII, Section 7 (1-3)

1. Chief Justice and Associate Justices of the Supreme Court
2. Justices of lower collegiate courts (Court of Appeals, Court of Tax Appeals, Sandiganbayan)

3. Judges of lower courts

Cases:
– Jardeleza v Sereno, 733 SCRA 279 (2014) and Resolution, GR 213181, Jan 21, 2015
– Villanueva v JBC, GR 211833, Apr 7, 2015
– Republic v Sereno, GR 237428, Resolution for M.R., Jun 19, 2018

IV. CONSTITUTIONAL COMMISSIONS AND OTHER CONSTITUTIONAL BODIES/AGENCIES

A. CSC, COA, COMELEC, Article IX, A, B, C, D

1. Powers and Functions
2. Qualifications and Disqualifications

3. Jurisdiction

Case: Laya v CA, GR 205813, Jan 10, 2018

4. Appointment and Terms of Office
5. Prohibited offices and interests
6. Salary
7. Removal
8. Fiscal Autonomy
9. Submission of Reports
10. Rule-Making powers

11. Review of final orders, resolutions and decisions

a. Rendered in the exercise of quasi-judicial functions
b. Rendered in the exercise of administrative functions

Cases:
– Funa v Villar, 670 SCRA 579 (2012)
– Funa v Duque III, 742 SCRA 166
– Dela Llana v Chairman, COA, 665 SCRA 176 (2012)
– Capablanca v CSC, GR 179370, Nov 19, 2009

B. Economic Agencies

1. BSP, Article XII, Sections 20, 21
2. NEDA, Article XII, Sections 9, 10

C. National Commissions

1. Commission on Human Rights (CHR), Article XIII, Sections 17-19
2. National Language Commission (Komisyon ng Wikang Pambansa), Article XIV, Section 9
3. National Police Commission (NAPOLCOM), Article XVI, Section 6
– RA 6975 – Establishing PNP under DILG
4. National Commission on Indigenous People (NCIP), Article XII, Section 5; Article XIV, Section 17, Article XVI, Section 12
– RA 8371 – Indigenous Peoples Rights Act

D. Anti-Graft Bodies

1. Sandiganbayan, Article XI, Section 4

– PD 1606, Section 4 – Jurisdiction of Sandiganbayan

2. Ombudsman, PD 1630 (1979); RA 6770 (1989)
Case: Caoibes v Ombudsman, GR 132177, Jul 19, 2001

PART III – PHILIPPINE AND INTERNATIONAL HUMAN RIGHTS LAW

I. Kinds and Heirarchy of Rights

A. Natural, Constitutional, Statutory Rights
B. Civil, Political, Economic, Social, Cultural Rights
C. 3 Generations of Rights – Reference: See Hornbook on International Law and Philippine Human Rights Laws by Atty. Petralba, p. 13.
D. Life, Liberty (Pursuit of happiness), Property Rights

Case: Republic v Cagandahan, Gr 166676 12 Sep 2008

II. Fundamental powers of the State

A. Inherent powers: Police Power, Eminent Domain, Taxation
B. Similarities and differences
C. Who exercise the power?

III. Due Process, Article III, Section 1

IV. Equal Protection, Article III, Section 1

V. Police Power

A. Concept, application and limits
B. Requisites for valid exercise

Cases:
– Southern Luzon Drug Corp. v DSWD, GR 199669, 25 Apr 2017
– Carlos Superdrug Corp. v DSWD, GR 16694, 29 Jun 29 2007
– Manila Memorial Park v DSWD, GR 175356, 3 Dec 2013
– Drugstore Asso. of the Phil. v National Council on Disability Affairs, GR 194561, 14 Sep 2016

C. Delegation to Administrative bodies, Local government units

Cases:
– Social Justice Society v Atienza, Jr., GR 156052, 7 Mar 2007
– Meralco v Sps. Ramos, GR 195145, 10 Feb 2016
– MMDA v Viron, GR 170656 15 Aug 2007
– Association of Medical Clinic for Overseas Workers, Inc. v GCC Approved Medical Center Association, GR 207132, 6 Dec 2016
– St. Luke’s Medical Center Employees Asso. v NLRC, GR 162053, 7 Mar 2007

VI. Eminent Domain Power, Article III, Section 9; Article XII, Section 18 (Compare to Art XII, Sec 17)

VII. Taxation Power

A. Definition, Nature, Purpose, Scope

B. Requisites for valid exercise, Art. VI, Sec 28; Art. XIV, Sec. 4 (3); LGU; Art. X, Sec 5

Cases:
-CIR v Algue, GR L-28896, 17 Feb 1998, (lifeblood of government)
– City of Pasig & Crispina Salumbre v Meralco, GR 181710, 7 Mar 2018

C. Tax Exemptions

Case: CIR v DLSU, GR 196596, 9 Nov 2016

D. Double Taxation

Case: City of Manila v Cosmos Bottling Company Corp. v GR 196681, 27 Jun 2018

E. License Fees v Tax

Case: Physical Therapy Org. v Municipal Board, GR 10448, 30 Aug 1957

VIII. Right against unreasonable searches and seizures (Right to be let alone), Article III, Section 2

IX. Privacy of communication and correspondence, Article III, Section 3
X. Freedom of speech, expression, Article III, Section 4

XI. Freedom of Religion, Article III, Section 5;

XII. Liberty of Abode / Right to Travel, Article III, Section 6

XIII. Right to Information, Article III, Section 7

XIV. Right to Association, Article III, Section 8

XV. Right to Property in Eminent Domain Cases, Article III, Section 9, supra.

XVI. Non-Impairment of Contract, Article III, Section 10

XVII. Access to Courts, Article III, Section 11

XVIII. Rights of Persons under Custodial Investigation, Article III, Section 12

XIX. Right to Bail, Article III, Section 13

XX. Due Process in Criminal Proceedings, Article III, Section 14

XXI. Privilege of the Writ of Habeas Corpus, Article III, Section 15

XXII. Right to Speedy Disposition of Cases, Article III, Section 16

XXIII. Right against Self Incrimination, Article III, Section 17

XXIV. Political Belief, Article III, Section 18 (1) / Right against Involuntary Servitude, Article III, Section 18 (2)

XXV. Right against Excessive Fines, Cruel, Degrading and Inhuman Punishment, Article III, Section 19

XXVI. Non-Imprisonment for Non-Payment of Debt or Poll Tax, Article III, Section 20

XXVII. Right against Double Jeopardy, Article III, Section 21

XXVIII. Right against Ex Post Facto Law, / Bill of Attainder, Article III, Section 22

 

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