Criminal Law 1

CRIMINAL LAW I
(Atty. Danilo D. Leyva)

Prescribed textbook/s: 1. Revised Penal Code Book I by Luis B. Reyes

NB: Closed book policy shall be observed during class. Only handwritten notes will be allowed.

I. GENERAL PRINCIPLES OF CRIMINAL LAW

A. Nature and definition
Canceran vs. People of the Phil., G.R. No. 206442 July 1, 2015

1. Distinction
i. Felonies
ii. Offenses
iii. Misdemeanor

B. Characteristics of Criminal Law
1. General (Art. 2, RPC)

a. Exceptions

i. Treaties
Bayan vs. Zamora, G.R. No. 138570. October 10, 2000

ii. Law of Preferential Application
a. Immunity of President
Soliven vs. Makasiar, G.R. No. L-82585, 14 November 1988
Lourdes Rubrico et. al. vs. Gloria Macapagal-Arroyo, et. al. (G.R. No. 183871, 2010
David et. al. vs. Macapagal-Arroyo et. al., G.R. No. 171396, May 3, 2006)

b. Diplomatic Immunity
Minucher v. Scalzo, G.R. No. 142396, 11 February 2003
Liang v. People, G.R. No. 125865, 28 January 2000 WHO vs. Aquino, G.R. No. L-35131, 29 November 1972

c. Members of Congress (Art. VI, Section 11, 1987 Const.) People v. Jalosjos, G.R. Nos. 132875‐76, February 3, 2000 Trillanes vs. Hon. Pimentel, G.R. No. 179817, 27 June 2008
Pobre v. Sen. Santiago, A.C. No, 7399, August 25, 2009
Jimenez, v. Cabangbang, G.R. No. L‐15905, August 3, 1966

iii. Public international law
Bayan vs. Zamora, G.R. No. 138570. October 10, 2000

2. Territorial (Art.2, RPC; Art. I of the Constitution)

i. Exceptions under Article 2, RPC (See Also Arts. 153 and 155, 201-202 RPC)
ii. RA 9851
iii. VFA, Article V
iv. PD 1599

v. Vessels/Planes
a. English Rule vs. French Rule

People v. Tulin, G.R. No. 111709, 30 August 2001, 364 SCRA 10 People vs. Wong Cheng, G.R. No. 18924, 19 October 1922 People vs. Elkanish, G.R. No. L-2666, 26 September 1951
People vs. Lol-lo, G.R. No. 17958, 27 February 1922 Bayan vs. Zamora, supra
US vs. Bull, 15 Phil. 7

3. Prospective (Article 21 and 22, RPC; See also Article 4, Civil Code)
a. Effects of repeal
US vs. Soliman, 36 Phil. 5 (1917)
Republic vs. Sandiganbayan, G.R. No. 90529, 16 August 1991
US vs. Cuna, 12 Phil 241
People vs. Tamayo, 61 Phil 225

b. Habitual delinquent (Art. 62, RPC)
People vs. Lacson, G.R. No. 149453, 1 April 2003
Gumabon vs. Director of Prisons, 37 SCRA 420 (1971)
People vs. Pimentel, G.R. No. 100210, 1 April 1998
Bernardo vs. Balagot, G.R. No. 86561, 10 November 1992
People vs. Venus, 63 Phil 435 (1936)

C. Sources of Criminal Law
1. Revised Penal Code
a. Different titles under the RPC (crimes against public order, crimes against person, etc.)

2. Special Penal Laws

D. Constitutional Limitations on Criminal Law
1. Due process and Equal protection (Art. 3, Sec. 1, 1987 Const.)
White Light Corp. v. City of Manila, G.R. No. 122846, 20 Jan. 2009
Garcia v. Drilon, G.R. No. 179267, 25 June 2013
Gumabon vs. Director of Prisons, 37 SCRA 420 (1971)
Tanada vs. Tuvera, 136 SCRA 27 (1985)

2. Freedom of expression (Art. 3, Sec. 4, 1987 Const.)
Guingguing v. People, G.R. No. 128959, 30 September 2005

3. Freedom of religion (Art. 3, Sec. 5, 1987 Const.)
Estrada v. Escritor, AM No. P-02-1651, 22 June 2006, 492 SCRA 1

4. No excessive fines, nor cruel, degrading or inhuman punishment. (Art. 3, Sec. 19, 1987 Const.)
People v. Echagaray, G.R. No. 117472, 7 Feb. 1997, 267 SCRA
682

Corpuz v. People, G.R. No. 180016, 29 April 2014

5. Non-imprisonment for debt or non-payment of poll tax (Art. 3, Sec. 19, 1987 Const.)

6. Bill of attainder (Art. 3, Sec. 22, 1987 Const.)
People v. Ferrer, L-32613-14, 27 December 1972, 48 SCRA 382

7. Ex-post facto laws (Art. 3, Sec. 22, 1987 Const.)
US v. Diaz Conde, L-18208, 14 February 1922

8. Double Jeopardy (Art. 3, Sec. 21, 1987 Const.)
Republic vs. Rosemoore Mining, G.R. No. 149927, 30 Mar. 2004 Lacson vs. Executive Secretary, G.R. No. 128096, 20 Jan. 1999 Calder vs. Bull, 3 Dall [US] 386
Bayot vs. Sandiganbayan, G.R. No. L-61776 to No. L-61861, 23 Mar. 1984

E. Construction and interpretation

1. Liberally in favour of the accused, strictly against the State
i. nullum crime, nulla poena sine lege
ii. Doctrine of peo reo

US vs. Wiltberger, 5 Wheat (US) 76, 95, 5 L. ed. 37, 42
Centeno vs. Villalon-Pornillos, G.R. No. 113092, 1 Sept. 1994
Rimando vs. COMELEC, G.R. No. 113092, 1 Sept. 1994
People vs. Ong, G.R. No. 176364, 18 Sept. 2009
Malilin vs. People, G.R. No. 172953, 30 April 2008

2. Spanish text of the RPC prevails over the English text People v. Abilong, L-1960, 26 November 1948

3. Retroactive application when favourable to the accused
4. Duty of the court; prescribed but undeserved penalties (Art. 5, RPC) People v. Formigones, L-3246, 29 November 1950

5. Suppletory application of RPC to Special Penal Laws (Art. 10, RPC)

  1. Ladonga v. People, G.R. No. 141066, 17 February 2005
  2. People v. Simon, G.R. No. 93028, 29 July 1994
  3. People vs. Mantalba, G.R. No. 186227, 20 July 2011
  4. Benjamin (“KOKOY”) T. Romualdez vs. Hon. Simeon V. Marcelo and Presidential Commission on Good Government, G.R. Nos. 165510-33, July 28, 2006, 529 Phil. 90

II. GENERAL PRINCIPLES OF CRIMINAL LIABILITY

A. Felony, defined (Art. 3, RPC)

B. Elements of criminal liability
1. Physical element (Actus reus)
a. Act
b. Omission
People v. Sylvestre and Atienza, G.R. No. 35748, 14 Dec. 1931, 56 Phil. 353
People v. Talingdan, L-32126, 6 July 1978, 84 SCRA 19

2. Mental element (Mens rea)

a. Deliberate intent (Dolo)
Manuel v. People, G.R. No. 165842, 29 November 2005

i. Elements of dolo

ii. Presumption of criminal intent; general and specific intent People v. Puno, G.R. No. 97471, 17 Feb. 1993, 219 SCRA 85 People v. Delim, G.R. No. 142773, 28 January 2003
US vs. Elvina, 24 Phil. 230 (1913)
Recuerdo vs. People, G.R. No. 168217, 27 June 2006
US vs. Catolico, 18 Phil. 504 (1911)

iii. Effects of mistake of fact (See also Art. 3, RPC)
US v. Ah Chong, G.R. No. 5272, 19 March 1910, 15 Phil. 488
People v. Oanis, G.R. No. 47722, 27 July 1943, 74 Phil. 257

iv. Malum prohibitum as exception to the requirement of mens rea Padilla v. Dizon, AC No. 3086, 23 Feb. 1988, 158 SCRA 127 Magno v. CA, G.R. No. 96132, 26 June 1992, 210 SCRA 475 Garcia v. CA, G.R. No. 157171, 14 Mar. 2006, 484 SCRA 617

v. Intent distinguished from motive
People vs. Hassan, G.R. No. L-68969, 22 Jan. 1998 People vs. Temblor, G.R. No. L-66884, 28 May 1988 Avecilla vs. CA, G.R. No. 46370, 2 June 1992

b. Constructive intent (Culpa) Art. 3 and 365

i. Elements of Culpa
People vs. Sara, 55 Phil. 939 (1931)
People vs. Nanquil, 43 Phil. 232 (1922)
People vs. Bindor, 56 Phil. 16
People vs. Nepomuceno, G.R. No. 127818, 11 Nov. 1998

ii. Imprudence or lack of skill
iii. Negligence or lack of foresight
People v. Pugay, L-74324, 17 Nov. 1988, 167 SCRA 439
Ivler v. San Pedro, G.R. No. 172716, 17 November 2010

iv. Criminal liability for omissions

c. Transferred intent (Art. 4, par. 1; See also Art. 49, RPC)

i. Aberratio ictus
People v. Guillen, L-1477, 18 January 1950, 85 Phil. 307
People vs. Flora, G.R. No. 125909, 3 June 2003

ii. Error in personae
People v. Sabalones, G.R. No. 123485, 31 Aug. 1998, 294 SCRA
751
People vs. Plateros, 83 SCRA 410 (1978)

iii. Praeter intentionem (Wrongful act different from that intended) People vs. Albuquerque, G.R. No. 38773, 19 Dec. 1933, 59 Phil. 150
People vs. Ortega, Jr., 276 SCRA 166 (1997)

2. Concurrence; Resulting harm; Causation
Bataclan v. Medina, L-10126, 22 October 1957, 102 Phil. 181
People v. Iligan, G.R. No. 75369, 26 November 1990
Urbano v. Intermediate Appellate Court, G.R. No. 72964, 7 Jan. 1988

C. Impossible Crimes (Art. 4, Par. 2; See also Article 59, RPC)
Intod v. CA, G.R. No. 103119, 21 October 1992, 215 SCRA 52
People v. Saladino, L-3634, 30 May 1951, 89 Phil. 807
Jacinto v. People, G.R. No. 162540, 13 July 2009
Valenzuela vs. CA, G.R. No. 160188, 21 June 2007
Rivera vs. People, G.R. No. 166326, 25 Jan. 2006

III. STAGES OF EXECUTION OF FELONIES (Art. 6, RPC)

A. Subjective and objective phase
US vs. Eduave, 36 Phil. 209 (1917)
Valenzuela vs. People, G.R. No. 160188, 21 June 2007

B. Attempted Stage
C. Frustrated Stage
D. Consummated crimes (Article 7 in relation to Art. 9, RPC)

US v. Eduave, G.R. No. 12155, 2 Feb. 1917, 36 Phil. 209
Rivera v. People, G.R. No. 166326, 25 Jan. 2006, 480 SCRA 188
Baleros v. People, G.R. No. 138033, 22 Feb. 2006, 483 SCRA 10 US vs. Adiao, G.R. No.13785, 8 Oct. 1918
Valenzuela vs. People, G.R. No. 160188, 21 June 2007
People vs. Campuhan, G.R. No. 129433, 30 March 2000
People vs. Hernandez, G.R. No. 31770, 5 Dec. 1929
People vs. Caballero, G.R. Nos. 149028-30, 2 Ape. 2003
People vs. Kalalo, G.R. Nos. 39303-05, 17 Mar. 1934
People vs. Salvillam, G.R. No. 86163, 26 Apr. 1990
People vs. Gonzales, G.R. No. 139542, 21 June 2001
People vs. Lamangan, G.R. No. 43530, 3 Aug. 1935
People vs. Borinaga, G.R. No. 33463, 18 Dec. 1930

D. Stages of execution in relation to specific felonies

1. Theft
Valenzuela v. People, G.R. No. 160188, 21 June 2007

2. Illegal Trespass
People v. Lamahang, L-43530, 3 August 1935, 61 Phil. 703

3. Physical Injuries, Homicide, and Murder
People v. Borinaga, G.R. No. 33463, 18 Dec. 1930, 55 Phil. 433
People v. Kalalo, G.R. No. 39303-05, 17 Mar. 1934, 59 Phil. 715
People v. Trinidad, G.R. No. 79123-25, 9 January 1989, 169
SCRA 51 Martinez v. CA, G.R. No. 168827, 13 April 2007
Mondragon v. People, L-17666, 30 June 1966, 17 SCRA 476
People v. Sy Pio, L-5848, 30 April 1954, 94 Phil. 885

4. Robbery

People v. Dio, L-36461, 29 June 1984, 130 SCRA 151
People v. Salvilla, G.R. No. 86163, 26 April 1990

5. Rape

People v. Orita, G.R. No. 88724, 3 April 1990, 184 SCRA 105
People v. Campuhan, G.R. No. 129433, 30 March 2000

6. Arson
US v. Valdes, L-14128, 10 December 1918

IV. CONSPIRACY AND PROPOSAL TO COMMIT A FELONY (Art. 8, See also

A. Conspiracy and proposal, when punished

B. As a manner of incurring criminal liability.
People v. Aguilos, G.R. No. 121828, 27 June 2003

C. Articles 115, 136, 141, 306 and 340, RPC
People vs. Tulin, G.R. No. 111709, 30 Aug. 2001 People vs. Pugay, G.R. No. L-74324, 17 Nov. 1998
People vs. Caballero, G.R. Nos. 149028-30, 2 April 2003
People vs. Aguilos, G.R. No. 121828, 27 June 2003
People vs. Cruz, G.R. No. 74048, 14 Nov. 1990
People vs. Carbonel, 48 Phil. 868 (1926)
People vs. Tabuso, G.R. No. 113708, 26 Oct. 1999
People vs. Laranaga, G.R. No. 138874-75, 3 Feb. 2004
Estrada vs. Sandiganbayan, G.R. No. 148965, 26 Feb. 2002
People vs. Dagani, G.R. No. 153875, 16 Aug. 2005

V. CLASSIFICATION OF FELONIES (Article 9, RPC, See corresponding penalties for Grave, Less Grave and Light Felonies)

A. Grave
B. Less Grave
C. Light

VI. CIRCUMSTANCES THAT AFFECT CRIMINAL LIABILITY

A. Justifying circumstances (Art. 11, RPC)

1. Defense of self, relatives, and strangers
Manaban v. Court of Appeals, G.R. No. 150723, 11 July 2006 Senoja v. People, G.R. No. 160341, 19 October 2004.
People v. Decena, G.R. No. 107874, 4 Aug. 1994, 235 SCRA 67
People v. Dela Cruz, G.R. No. 128359, 6 Dec. 2000, 347 SCRA
100
People v. Jaurigue, G.R. No. 384, 21 February 1946, 76 Phil. 174
People v. Narvaez, L-33466-67, 20 April 1983, 121 SCRA 389 (see also dissents of J. Abad Santos and J. Gutierrez, Jr.)
Sabang v. People, G.R. No. 168818, 9 March 2007, 518 SCRA 35
People v. Dagani, G.R. No. 153875, 16 Aug. 2006, 499 SCRA 64
Palaganas v. People, G.R. No. 165483, 12 Sep. 2006, 501 SCRA
533
People vs. Catbagan, G.R. No. 149430-32, 23 Feb. 2004

2. Avoidance of greater evil

People v. Ricohermoso, L-30527-28, 29 Mar 1974, 56 SCRA 431 People v. Norma Hernandez, CA-G.R. No. 22553-R, 14 Apr. 1959, 55 OG 8465

3. Fulfillment of duty
People v. Delima, L-18660, 22 December 1922, 46 Phil. 738
People v. Lagata, L-1940-42, 24 March 1949, 83 Phil. 150
Mamangun v. People, G.R. No. 149152, 2 February 2007
People v. Dagani, G.R. No. 153875, 16 Aug. 2006, 499 SCRA 64

3. Obedience to a lawful order of a superior
People v. Beronilla, L-4445, 28 February 1955, 96 Phil. 566
Tabuena v. Sandiganbayan, G.R. No. 103501-03, 17 Feb. 1997,
268 SCRA 332

B. Exempting Circumstances (Art. 12, RPC)

1. Insanity

People v. Taneo, L-37673, 31 March 1933, 58 Phil. 255
People v. Bonoan, L-45130, 17 February 1937, 64 Phil. 87
People v. Dungo, G.R. No. 89420, 31 July 1991, 199 SCRA 860
People v. Rafanan, L-54135, 21 November 1991, 204 SCRA 65
People v. Madarang, G.R. No. 132319, 12 May 2000, 332 SCRA
99
People v. Robios, G.R. No. 138453, 29 May 2002, 382 SCRA
581
People v. Opuran, G.R. Nos. 147674-75, 17 March 2004, 425
SCRA 654
Verdadero v. People, G.R. No. 216021, 2 March 2016
People v. Genosa, 341 SCRA 493, 419 SCRA 537 RA 9262 (Re:
Battered Woman Syndrome)

2. Minority

RA 9344 as amended by RA 10630
People v. Doqueña, G.R. No. 46539, 27 Sept. 1939, 68 Phil. 580
Ortega v. People, G.R. No. 151085, 20 August 2008
People v. Mantalaba, G.R. No. 186227, 20 July 2011.

3. Accident
US v. Tañedo, L-5418, 12 February 1910, 15 Phil. 196
People v. Castillo, G.R. No. 172695, 29 Jun 2007, 526 SCRA 215
People v. Retubado, G.R. No. 124058, 10 December 2003
Pomoy v. People, G.R. No. 150647, 29 Sep. 2004, 439 SCRA 439

4. Irresistible force or uncontrollable fear of a greater injury
US v. Caballeros, G.R. No. 1352, 29 March 1905, 4 Phil. 350
People v. Loreno, L-54414, 9 July 1984, 130 SCRA 311
People v. Del Rosario, G.R. No. 127755, 14 Apr. 1999, 305
SCRA 740

5. Insuperable cause
People v. Bandian, G.R. No. 45186, 30 September 1936, 63 Phil. 530 (see also: separate opinion of J. Villareal)

C. Other exculpatory causes

1. Instigation
People v. Lua Chu, G.R. No. 34917, 7 Sept. 1931, 56 Phil. 44
People v. Doria, G.R. No. 125299, 22 Jan. 1999, 301 SCRA 668

2. Pardon (Art. 266-C and Art. 344)

3. Absolutory circumstances
a. Art. 6 (3), RPC
b. Art. 20, RPC
c. Art. 247, RPC
d. Art. 280, RPC
e. Art. 332, RPC
Intestate Estate of Manolita Gonzales v. People, G.R. No. 181409, 11 Feb. 2010

D. Mitigating Circumstances (Art. 13, RPC)

1. Classes of Mitigating Circumstances

a. Privileged
i. Art. 13 (2) and Art. 68, RPC
ii. Art. 13 (1) and Art. 69
People v. Jaurigue, G.R. No. 384, 21 February 1946, 76 Phil. 174
People v. Narvaez, L-33466-67, 20 April 1983, 121 SCRA 389
People v. Ulep, G.R. No. 132547, 20 September 2000
Guillermo v. People, G.R. No. 153287, 20 January 2009.

b. Ordinary
i. Lack of intent to commit so grave a wrong
People v. Ural, L-30801, 27 March 1974, 56 SCRA 138
People v. Gonzales, G.R. No. 139542, 21 June 2001, 359 SCRA
352

ii. Sufficient provocation
People v. Pagal, L-32040, 25 October 1977, 79 SCRA 570
Urbano v. People, G.R. No. 182750, 20 January 2009

iii. Vindication of a wrong
People v. Benito, L-32042, 13 February 1975, 74 SCRA 271
Bacabac v. People, G.R. No. 149372, 11 Sept. 2007

iv. Passion or obfuscation
US v. Hicks, G.R. No. 4971, 23 Sept. 1909, 14 Phil. 217
US v. Dela Cruz, G.R. No. 7094, 29 March 1912, 22 Phil. 429
People v. Gelaver, G.R. No. 95357, 9 June 1993, 223 SCRA 310 People v. Bello, L-18792, 28 February 1964

v. Voluntary surrender or plea of guilt
People v. Amaguin, G.R. Nos. 5434445, 10 Jan. 1994, 229 SCRA
166
People v. Dela Cruz, L-45284, 29 December 1936, 63 Phil. 874

vi. Deafness, muteness, blindness, or other physical defect which restricts the offender’s means of action, defense, or communication

vii. Illness as would diminish the exercise of will-power without depriving the offender of consciousness of his acts.

viii. Analogous circumstances
Canta v. People, G.R. No. 140937, 28 February 2001
D. Aggravating Circumstances (Art. 14 and 62 of the RPC) Section 8, Rule 110, Revised Rules on Criminal Procedure
People v. Legaspi, G.R. Nos. 136164-65, 20 April 2001

1. Classes of Aggravating Circumstance
a. Generic
b. Qualifying
c. Specific
d. Inherent
e. Special

2. Taking advantage of public office
People v. Capalac, L-38297, 23 October 1982, 117 SCRA 874
People v. Gapasin, G.R. No. 73489, 25 April 1994, 231 SCRA 728

3. Insult to public authority
People v. Tiongson, L-35123-24, 25 July 1984, 130 SCRA 614
People v. Magdueño, L-68699, 22 September 1986, 144 SCRA 210
People v. Tac-an, G.R. Nos. 76338-89, 26 February 1990.

4. Disregard of rank, age, or sex, and dwelling;
People v. Diaz, G.R. No. L-24002, 21 January 1974.
People v. Arizobal, G.R. No. 135051-52, 14 Dec. 2000, 348 SCRA
143
People v. Daniel, G.R. No. L-40330, 20 November 1978 People v. Apduhan, L-19491, 30 August 1968

5. Abuse of confidence or obvious ungratefulness
People v. Mandolado, L-51304-05, 28 June 1983, 123 SCRA 133

6. The crime is committed in the palace of Chief Executive, in his presence, where public authorities are engaged in the discharge of their duties, or place dedicated to religious worship;

7. Nighttime, uninhabited place, or by a band;

People v. Garcia, L-30449, 31 October 1979, 94 SCRA 14
People v. Rodas, G.R. No. 175881, 28 August 2007
People v. Damaso, L-30116, 20 November 1978, 86 SCRA 370 (uninhabited)

8. Crime committed on the occasion of conflagration, shipwreck, earthquake, epidemic, or other calamity or misfortune;

9. Aid of armed men or persons who afford impunity;

10. Recidivism
People v. Baldera, L-2390, 24 April 1950, 86 Phil. 189

11. Reiteracion

12. Habitual delinquency (Art. 62, par. 5, RPC)
People v. Melendrez, G.R. No. 39913, 19 Dec.1933, 59 Phil. 154

13. Quasi- recidivism (Art. 160)

14. Price, reward, or promise;

15. Inundation, fire, poison, etc.

16. Evident premeditation
US v. Manalinde, G.R. No. 5292, 28 August 1909, 14 Phil. 77
People v. Ilaoa, G.R. No. 94308, 16 June 1994, 233 SCRA 231
People v. Bibat, G.R. No. 124319, 13 May 1998, 290 SCRA 27
People vs. Bacbac, G.R. No. 149372, 11 Sept. 2007
People vs. Ducabo, G.R. No. 175594, 28 Sept. 2007

17. Craft, fraud, or disguise
People v. Empacis, G.R. No. 95756, 14 May 1993, 222 SCRA 59

18. Taking advantage of superior strength, or means employed to weaken the defense;
People v. Bigcas, G.R. No. 94534, 2 July 1992, 211 SCRA 631

19. Treachery
People v. Sangalang, L-32914, 30 August 1974, 58 SCRA 737
People v. San Pedro, L-44274, 22 January 1980, 95 SCRA 306
People v. Castillo, G.R. No. 120282, 20 Apr. 1998, 289 SCRA 213
People v. Arizobal, G.R. No. 135051-52, 14 Dec. 2000, 348 SCRA
143
People v. Escote, G.R. No. 140756, 4 April 2003, 400 SCRA 603
People v. Villonez, G.R. Nos. 122976-77, 16 Nov. 1998, 359 Phil.
95, 1998
People v. Guzman, G.R. No. 169246, 26 January 2007 People

20. Ignominy
People v. Torriefel CA-GR. No. 659-R, 29 Nov. 1947, 45 OG 803
People v. Jose, L-28232, 6 February 1971, 37 SCRA 450
People v. Butler, L-50276, 27 January 1983, 120 SCRA 281
People v. Saylan, L-36941, 29 June 1984, 130 SCRA 159
People v. Sultan, G.R. No. 132470, 27 April 2000, 331 SCRA 216
People vs. Fernandez, G.R. No. 62116, 22 Mar. 1990

21. Unlawful entry

22. Breaking of wall, roof, floor, door, or window

23. Aid of persons under fifteen years old, use of motor vehicles, airships, or other similar means

24. Cruelty
People vs. Lucas, G.R. No. 80102, 22 Jan. 1990
People vs. Foncardias, G.R. No. 144598, Feb. 6, 2004
People vs. Amadore, G.R. No. 140669-75, 20 Apr. 2001

Licayu vs. People, G.R. No. 169425, 4 Mar. 2008

25. Organized or syndicated crime group

26. Use of illegal firearms or explosives – see RA 10591
People v. Ladjaalam, G.R. Nos. 136149-51, 19 Sep. 2000 Celino v. Court of Appeals, G.R. No. 170562, 29 June 2007

27. Use of dangerous drugs while committing a felony – Sec. 25 of RA 9165

28. Use of information and communications technologies in committing a felony – Sec. 6, RA 10175

F. Alternative Circumstances (Art. 15, RPC)

1. Relationship
People v. Atop, G.R. No. 124303-05, 10 Feb. 1998, 286 SCRA 157
People vs. Lucas, G.R. No. 80102, 22 JAN. 1990

2. Intoxication
US v. McMann, L-2229, 1 July 1905, 4 Phil. 561
People vs. Foncardas, G.R. No. 144598, 6 Feb, 1998
Licayayo vs. People, G.R. No. 169425, 4 Mar. 1990
People vs. Nabong, G.R. No. 172324, 4 April 2007

3. Degree of Instruction
People v. San Pedro, L-44274, 22 January 1980, 95 SCRA 306

V. PERSONS CRIMINALLY LIABLE (Art. 16, RPC)

A. Principals (Art. 17, RPC)
People v. Yanson-Dumancas, G.R. No. 133527-28, 13 Dec. 1999,
320 SCRA 584
People v. Maluenda, G.R. No. 115351, 27 Mar. 1998, 288 SCRA
225
People v. Montealegre, L-67948, 31 May 1988 People v. Madali, L-67803, 30 July 1990

B. Accomplices (Art. 18, RPC)
Abejuela v. People, G.R. No. 80130, 19 Aug. 1991, 200 SCRA 806
People v. Doble, L-30028, 31 May 1982, 114 SCRA 131
People v. Doctolero, G.R. No. 34386, 7 Feb. 1991, 193 SCRA 632
People v. De Vera, G.R. No. 128966, 18 Aug 1999, 312 SCRA 640
Garces v. People, G.R. No. 173858, 17 July 2007

C. Accessories – (Art. 19 and 20, RPC)
See also PD 1612; PD 1829
People v. Talingdan, L-32126, 6 July 1978, 84 SCRA 19
Dizon-Pamintuan v. People, G.R. No. 111426, 11 July 1994

VI. PLURALITY OF CRIMES (Art. 48, RPC)

A. Compound crime (delito compuesto)
People v. Tabaco, G.R. No. 100382, 19 March 1997
People v. Valdez, G.R. No. 127663, 11 March 1999
People v. Sanchez, G.R No. 131116, 27 Aug. 1999, 313 SCRA 254

B. Complex crime proper (delito complejo)
People vs. Hernandez, L-6025-26, 18 July 1956, 99 Phil. 515
Enrile vs. Salazar, G.R. No. 92163, 5 June 1990, 184 SCRA 217
People v. Garcia, G.R. No. 141125, 28 February 2002
Batulanon v. People, G.R. No. 139857, 15 September 2006

C. Continuing crime (delito continuado)
People v. Madrigal-Gonzales, L-16688, 30 April 1963 Gamboa v. Court of Appeals, L-41054, 28 November 1975 People v. Mallari, G.R. No. L-58886, 13 December 1988 Santiago v. Garchitorena, G.R. No. 109266, 2 December 1993

D. Composite Crimes/Special Complex Crimes
1. Art. 266-B, RPC
2. Art. 267, RPC
3. Art. 294, RPC
4. Art. 297, RPC
5. Art. 320, RPC

E. Complex crimes in relation to Quasi-crimes
Ivler v. San Pedro, G.R. No. 172716, 17 Nov. 2010

VII. PENALTIES

A. Imposable penalties
1. Principal penalties (Art. 25, RPC)
a. Capital punishment – Sec. 19, Art III of the 1987 Constitution; RA 7659, RA 8177; RA 9346; Art. 40 and 47 RPC; RA 9346
People v. Bon, G.R. No. 166401, 30 October 2006

b. Afflictive penalties
i. Reclusion perpetua – RA 7659, Art. 27 of RPC People v. Lucas, G.R. No. 108172, 25 May 1994
People v. Lucas, G.R. No. 108172, 9 January 1995
People v. Latupan, G.R. No. 112453, 28 June 2001

ii. Reclusion temporal
iii. Perpetual or temporary absolute disqualification – Article 30, RPC
iv. Perpetual or temporary special disqualification – Art. 31, RPC
v. Prision mayor – Art. 27, RPC

c. Correctional penalties – Art. 27, 39, and 44, RPC
i. Prision correccional
ii. Arresto mayor
iii. Suspension
iv. Destierro

d. Light penalties – Art. 27, 39, and 44, RPC
i. Arresto menor
ii. Public censure

e. Common penalties – Art.25, RPC
i. Fines – Art. 26, 39, and 66
ii. Bond to keep the peace – Art. 27 and 35

2. Accessory penalties – Art. 40 -45, RPC
a. Perpetual or temporary absolute disqualification
b. Perpetual or temporary special disqualification
c. Suspension from public office, the right to vote and be voted for, the profession or calling
d. Civil interdiction
e. Indemnification
f. Forfeiture or confiscation of the instruments and proceeds of the offense
g. Payment of costs

3. Subsidiary penalty – Art. 39, RPC See also: RA 10159

B. Application and computation of penalties

1. General rules – Art. 5, 21, 28, 29, RPC (see also RA 10592), 46, 73-77, RPC
2. Specific Rules
a. Complex Crimes-Art. 48, RPC
b. Crime different from that which was intended – Art. 49, RPC
c. Effect of degree of participation and stage of commission – Art. 50 -57, 60- 61, RPC
d. Additional penalty for certain accessories – Art. 58, RPC
e. Impossible crimes – Art. 59, RPC
f. Effect of mitigating, aggravating, and qualifying circumstances – Art. 62-66, RPC
g. Incomplete justifying or exempting circumstances – Art. 67 and 69, RPC
h. Minors – RA 9344

3. Indeterminate Sentence Law
People v. Lanuza, G.R. No. 188562, 17 August 2011
Talampas v. People, G.R. No. 180219, 23 November 2011
People v. Temporada, G.R. No. 173473, 17 December 2008. See CJ Puno Dissent and J. Corona Separate Opinion

C. Execution and service of penalties

1. General rules – Art. 47, 70, 78, and 86-88, RPC
In re Petition for Habeas Corpus, Pete Lagran, G.R. No. 147270, 15 August 2001, 363 SCRA 275

2. Probation Law (PD 968 as amended) See also: RA 10707 Colinares vs. People, G.R. No. 182748, 13 Dec. 2011 Francisco vs. CA, G.R. No. 108747, 6 Apr. 1995 Lagrosa vs. People, G.R. No. 152044, 3 Jul. 2003

3. Suspension of sentence
a. In cases of insanity – Art. 79, RPC
b. Minors
i. Section 31-35 of AM No. 02-1-18-SC
ii. RA 9344

VIII. EXTINCTION OF CRIMINAL LIABILITY

A. Total Extinction– Art.89-93, RPC
Sermonia v. Court of Appeals, G.R. No. 109454, 14 June 1994

Republic v. Desierto, G.R. No. 136506, 23 Aug. 2001, 363 SCRA
585
See also: Act No. 3326 as amended by Act No. 3763 Romualdez v. Marcelo, G.R. No. 165510, 28 July 2006

B. Partial Extinction– Art. 94-99;
See also: amendments under RA 10592
Cruz III v. Go, G.R. No. 223446, 28 November 2016

IX. CIVIL LIABILITY ARISING FROM CRIMINAL LIABILITY – Art. 100-113

A. General Rule (Art. 100, RPC)
B. Subsidiary Liability (Art. 102-103, RPC)
C. Persons civilly liable for felonies
D. What civil liability includes (Art. 104-111, RPC)
E. Preference in the payment of the civil liabilities (Art. 72, RPC)
F. Extinction of civil liability (Art. 112-111, RPC)

People v. Bayotas, G.R. No. 102007, 2 September 1994.

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