Transportation Law and Public Utilities

2018 Edition

Suggested Reference: Aquino, Timoteo B. & Hernando, Ramon Paul L., Notes and Cases on the law of Transportation and Public Utilities

COURSE OUTLINE

  1. PUBLIC UTILITIES
    1. General Discussion
      1. What is a public utility?
        1. Munn v Illinois, 94 U.S. 113 (1876)
        2. Luzon Stevedoring Co., Inc. v. PSC, G.R. No L-5458, September 1s, 1gsz
        3. Additional Readings.
          1. Epstein, Richard A. The History of Public Utility Rate Regulation in the United States Supreme Court: Of Reasonable and Nondiscriminatory Rates, 38(3) Journal of Supreme Court History 345-368 (2013)
        4. What is a public service?
          1. Commonwealth Act      146   or the Public Service Act, as amended, Sec 13(b)
          2. Differentiate public utility from public service
        5. Legal Basis and Rationale for Regulation
          1. Republic of the Philippines v. Meralco, 391 SCRA 700 (G.R. No. 141314, November 15, 2002)
          2. Additional Readings.
          3. Miller, Edythe S., Is the Public Utility Concept Obsolete? Land Economics, Vol. 71, No. 3, Social Control Of Private Power: The Past and Future of Public Utility Regulation (August 1995), pp. 273- 285
        6. Where does the Power to Regulate Public Utilities Reside?
          1. Albano v. Reyes, 175 SCRA 264
          2. KMU Labor Center v. Garcia, 239 sCRA 386
          3. Relate to Public Service Act 13(a)
        7. What happened to the Public Service commission?
          1. See footnote #2 in KMU Labor Center v. Garcia, 239 SCRA 386
        8. Not a Public Utility
          1. Tatad v. Garcia, 243 SCRA 436
          2. JG Summit Holdings, Inc. v. Court of Appeals, G.R. September 24, 2003 No. 124293,
          3. See Public Service Act, Sec. 14 for enterprises not covered by definition of public service
        9. Constitutional Provisions
          1. See Article XII, Secs. 6, 11, 17, 18, 19, 1987 Constitution
          2. Ownership
          3. Gamboa v. Teves, G.R. No. 176579, June 28, 2011
          4. In the Matter of: The Corporate Rehabilitation of Bayan Telecommunications, Inc., G.R. Nos. 175418-20
            1. Additional readings:
              1. SEC MC No. 8-2013 (Guidelines on Compliance with Filipino- Foreign Ownership Requirements) Relate to Public Service Act, Sec. 16 (a) and Sec. 20 (i)
            2. Exclusivity
              1. Metro Cebu Water v. Adala, G.R. No. 168914, J I/ 4, 2007
            3. Subject to Amendment
              1. RCPI v. NTC, 150 SCRA 450 (L-6 z2g)
            4. Fixed-Term
              1. Francisco v. Toll Regulatory Board, G.R. NO. 166910, October 19, 2010
            5. Take-over Power
              1. David v. Macapagal-Arroyo, G.R. NO. 1 71396, May 3; 2006
              2. Agan v. Piatco, G.R. No. 155001, January 21, 2004
            6. Privatization of Stale-Operated Public Utilities
              1. Kuwait Airways v. Philippine Airlines, G.R. No. 156087, May 8, 2009
            7. Regulation of Public Utilities
              1. Authority to Operate
              2. Albano v. Reyes, supra
              3. PLDT v. NTC, G.R. No. 88404, October 18, 1990
              4. Francisco v. Toll Regulatory Board, GR 166910, Oct. 19, 2010
              5. Napocor v. Court of Appeals, 279 SCRA 506, G.R. 112702, Sep/. 1997
              6. Relate to Public Service Act, Section 16 (a), Sec. 18
                1. General Qualifications
                  1. De Lat v. PSC, G.R. No. L-34978, Feb. 26, 1988
                  2. KMU Labor Center v. Garcia, 239 SCRA 386
                2. Revocation or Cancellation
                  1. Divinagracia v. Consolidated BroadcaStlng SystelTl, Inc. G.R. No. 162272, April 7, 2009
                  2. Relate to Public Service Act, Section 16(m)
                3. CPC V. CPCN
                  1. See Public Service Act, Section 15
                  2. PAL v. CAB, 270 SCRA 538 (GR 119528) (see also Republic Acts No. 91B3 and 9517 in relation to case)
                4. Rate-Fixing
                  1. See Public Service Act, Sections 16 (c) and 20 (a)
                  2. Philippine Communications Satellite Corporation v. Alcuaz, G.R. to.. &4818 December 18, 1989 Republic of the Philippines v. Meralco, 39 (SCRA 700, Nov. 15, 2002a
                    1. Undue Delegation
                      1. KMU Labor Center v. Garcia, 239 SCRA 386
                    2. Provisional Rates
                      1. Padua v. Ranada, G.R. NO. 141949, October 14, 2002
                      2. Freedom from Debt Coalition v. Energy Regulatory Commission, G.R. No.161113
                    3. Rate Refund
                      1. BF Homes v. Mera/co, G.R. No. 171624, Dec. 6, 2010
                    4. Vis-a-vis Power to Grant Authority
                      1. Francisco v. Toll Regulatory Board, GR 166910, Oct. 19, 2010
  2. Area Operation
    1. Napocor v. Court of Appeals, 279 SCRA 506
  3. Approval of Sale and Mortgages of Public Utility Assets or Equity
    1. Public Service Act, Section 20 (g), (h) and (i)
    2. Montoya v. Ignacio, G.R. No. L-5868, December 29, 1953
    3. Y Transit Co., Inc. v. NLRC, 229 SCRA SOB PLDT v’ NEC, GR 88404, Oct. 18, 1990
  4. Power to set fees and other charges
    1. Republic v. International Communications Corporation, G.R. No. 141667, JUly 17, 2006
  5. Other means of regulation
    1. See PubIic Service Act, Section 16 and 20
    2. PLDT v NTC, supra
    3. BF Homes v. Meralco, GR 171624, Dec. 6, 2010
    4. Taxicab Operators of Metro Manila v. Board of Transportation, G.R. No L-59234, September 30,
  6. Due process requirements
    1. Pantranco v. PSC, 70 Phil. 221
    2. KMU Labor Center v. Garcia, 239 SCRA 386

 

  1. TRANSPORTATION LAW
    1. General Discussion
      1. Definition
      2. Relationship to a public utility
      3. Nature of a Franchise
        1. Raymundo v. Luneta Motor, 58 Phil. 889 Cogeo-Cubao Operator & Driver Association CA, G.R. No. 100727, March 18, 1992,
      4. Scope of a Franchise
        1. San Pablo v. Pantranco, 153 SCRA 199
      5. Prior-operator rule
        1. Batangas Transportation v. Orlanes, 52 Phil. 455
      6. Kabit System
        1. Teja v. IAC, 148 SCRA 347
        2. Lim v. CA, G.R. No. 125817, January 16 , 20os
      7. Private nature; rights and obligations of pa rtie S if ter se arising from transactions relating to transportation
        1. absent a transportation contract
          1. Lara v. Valencia, 104 Phil 65
        2. liability of registered owner
          1. PCI Leasing v UCPB General insurance, 557 SCRA 141 (GR 162267
        3. Regulation of the Transportation Industry
          1. The Department of Transportation and Communication, EO 292 Book IV, Title XV
            1. Mirasol v. DPWH, G.R. No. 158793, June 8, 2006
              1. Air
                1. Civil Aviation Authority of the Philippines, Republic Act No. 9497 {2008/, Sec. 4, 2f, 24, 25, 35
                  1. Additional readings:
                    1. Convention for International              Civil              Aviation (’Chicago Convention), Arts 6, 9, 37, 38, 43, 44 and 87
                  2. Civil Aeronautics Board, RA 776, as amended, Secs. 5, 10 (A), (C); Secs. 11, 12
                    1. PAL v. CAB, 23 SCRA 992
                    2. PAL v. CAB, supra
                    3. Kuwait Airways v. PAL, GR 156087 uay 8, 2009
                  3. Land
                    1. Land Transportation Office, EO 125-A, Secs. 9, 11. 13(a); Administrative Code of 1987, Title XV, Sec. 9(1)
                    2. Land Transportation Franchising EO 202, Secs 1, 2, 4, 5, 6, 7, 13B7, Title XV, Secs 15-22 and Regulatory Board, administrative Code of 1987
                    3. KMU Labor Center v. Garcia, 239 SCRA 386
                  4. Water
                    1. Maritime Industry Authority, EO 125, Sec. 14, as amended by EO-125-A, Sec. 4, RA 9295, Sec. 9, 10 and 11, and RA 10635, Sec. 4.
                    2. Additional readings:
                      1. 1978 international              Convention        on              Standards          of Training,              Certification and              Watchkeeping   for Seafarers (with 2010 Manila Amendments)
  2. Common Carriers
    1. In General
      1. Definitions, essential elements; Art. 1732
        1. S. v. Tan Piaco, 4D Phil. 853
        2. Home Insurance Co. v, American Steamship, 23 SCRA 24 De Guzman v. CA, 168 SCRA 612
        3. Bascos v. CA, 221 SCRA 318
        4. Planters Products Inc. v. Court of AppE2als, 226 SCRA 476
        5. Fabre v. Court of Appeals, 259 SCRA 426
        6. First Philippine Industrial Corporation v. Court of Appeals, 300 SCRA 661, GR 125948, 12129/98
        7. Loadstar Shipping Co., Inc. v. COUrt of Appeals, 315 SCRA 339 (GR 131621; 9/28/99}
        8. Crisostomo v. Court of Appeals, 409  SCRA 528 (GR 138334; B/25/03)
        9. Cruz v. Sun Holidays, G.R. No. I 863f2, June 29, 2010
      2. Nature and Basis of Liability
        1. 1733
        2. Cangco V. MRR, 38 Phil. 767
        3. Isaac v. A.L. Ammen, 101 Phil. 1D46
        4. Fores v. Miranda, 105 Phil. 266
        5. Rabbit v IAC, 1B9 SCRA 159
        6. LRTA v. Navidad, 397 SCRA 75 (GR 145804: 2/6/03)
      3. Class of common carriers
        1. Art 1732, 1733, 170#
      4. Law applicable
        1. 1766, 1753
        2. National Development Co vs. Court of Appeals GR. L-49407, August 19, 1988
        3. Additional Readings
          1. Convention for              International     Civil              aviation (“Chicago Convention“}
          2. 1978 International Convention of standards Training, Certification and Watchkeeping for Seafarer (with 2010 Manila amendments)
          3. 1974 International Convention for The Safety of Life at Sea (SOLAS)
          4. 1972 Convention ontheo International Regulations for Preventing Collisions at Sea (COLREGs)
  1. Common Carriage of Goods
    1. Liability and presumption of negligence
      1. 1733, 1734, 1735
      2. Ynchaustl Steamship Go. v. Dextar, 41 Phll. 280 Mlraaol v. Dollar, 53 Phll 125
    2. Exemption from liability
      1. Natural Disaster
        1. 1734 (1), 1736, 1740; Art. 3B1,
        2. Code of Commerce
        3. Tan Chiong v. lnchausti, 22 PhII 153
        4. Martini v. Macondray, 36 Phll 944
        5. Eastern Shlpplng v. IAC. 150 SCRA 4B3
        6. Asian Lighterage v. Court Of Appeals. 408 SCRA 340
      2. Act of public enemy — Art. 1734(2) , 1739
      3. Act of omission of shipper — Art. 1734(3), 1741
      4. Character of goods, etc
        1. 1734{4),-1742
        2. 366, Code of Commerce
        3. Government v. Ynchausti, 40 Phil 219
        4. Southern Lines v. CA, 4 SCRA 258
      5. Order of Competent authority
        1. 1734(5), 1743
        2. Ganzon v. Court of Appeals, 161 SCRA 646
  1. Duration of Extraordinary Responsibility
    1. 1736 to 1738
    2. Compania Maritima v. Insurance Company, 12 SCRA 213
    3. Lu Do v. Binamira, 101 Phil 120
    4. APL v. Klepper, 110 Phil 243
    5. Samar Mining Co., Inc. v. Nordeutscher Lloyd, 132 SCRA 529 (GR L-28673; 10/23/84)
    6. Eastern Shipping v. CA, 234 SCRA 79 (GR 97412; 7/12/94)
  2. Agreement Limiting Liability
    1. As to diligence required
      1. 1744, 1745, 1751
    2. As to amount of liability
      1. Arts 1749 and 1750
      2. Heacock v. Macondray 42 Phil 205
      3. Shewaram v. PAL 17 SCRA 606
      4. Ong Yiu v. CA, 91 SCRA 223
      5. Pan Am v. IAC, 164 SCRA 268
      6. Cathay Pacific V CA, 219 SCRA 520
    3. As to delay in delivery
      1. Maersk Line v. Court of Appeals, 222 SCRA 108 (GR 94761; 5/17/93)
    4. Factors affecting agreement
      1. 1746,—1747, 1748, 1751, 1752
    5. Applicable Law in Foreign Trade
      1. 1753
    6. Rules on Passenger Baggage Arts. 1754, 1998, 2000 to 2003
  3. Common Carriage of Passengers
    1. Nature and extent of responsibility
      1. 1733, 1755
      2. Isaac v. A.L. Amnen Trans Co., 101 Phil. 1046
      3. Landingin v. Pantranco, 33 SCRA 284
      4. Landicho v. BTCo., 52 OG 7640
      5. Necesito v. Paras, 104 Phil 75
      6. PAL v. CA, 106 SCRA 391
      7. Sulpicio v. CA, 246 SCRA 229
      8. Japan Airlines v. Court of Appeals, 449 SCRA 544
    2. Duration of responsibility
      1. 1736, Civil Code
      2. Cangco v. MRR, 38 Phil.“767
      3. Del Prado v. Meralco, 52 Phil 900
      4. La Mallorca v. Court of Appeals, 17 SCRA 739
      5. Bataclan v. Medina, 102 Phil 181
      6. Aboitiz v. CA, 179 SCRA 95
      7. Philippine Airlines v. CA, 226 SCRA 423
    3. Presumption of negligence, Art. 175s
    4. Force majeure
      1. Bachelor Express v. CA, 188 SCRA 217
      2. Yobido v. Court of Appeals, 281 SCRA 1 (GR 113003: 10/17/g7)
    5. Limitation of liability; validity of stipulations
      1. —Arts.1Y57,7758
    6. Responsibility for acts of employees
      1. 1759, 1760
      2. De Gillaco v. MRR,17 Phil 884
      3. Maranan v. Perez, 20 SCRA 412
      4. LRTA v. Navidad, 397 SCRA Z5
    7. Responsibility for acts of strangers and co- passengers
      1. 1763
      2. Pilapil v. CA, 180 SCRA 546
      3. Bachelor Express, Inc. v. CA, 188 SCRA 217
    8. Duty of passenger; effect of contributory negligence
      1. 1761, 1762
      2. Cangco v. MRR, 38 Phil. 767
      3. Isaac v. A.L. Amnen, 101 Phil. 1046
    9. Damages Recoverable from Common Carriers
      1. In general
      2. Actual or compensatory
        1. 2199, 2201, 2203, 1764, 2206
        2. Cariaga v. LTBCo. and MRR, 110 Phil 346
        3. Pan Am v. IAC, 114 SCRA 268
        4. Villa-Rey v. CA, 31 SCRA 511
        5. PAL v. CA, 185 SCRA 110
        6. Victory Liner v. Gammad, G.R. No. 159636, Nov 25, 2004
      3. Moral
        1. 2217, 2216, 2219, 2220, 2206(3)
        2. Fores v. Miranda, 105 Phil 266
        3. Air-France.v. -Carascoso. 18 SCRA 155
        4. Lopez v. Pan Am, 16 SCRA 431
        5. Ortigas v. Lufthansa, 64 SCRA 610
        6. Cathay Pacific v. Vasquez, 399 SCRA 207 (GR 150843; 3/14/03)
        7. Air France v. Gillego, G.R. No. 165266, December

 

  1. Exemplary
    1. 2229, 2232, 2233
      1. Mecenas v. Court of Appeals, 180 SCRA 83
  1. Nominal, Temperate and Liquidated
    1. 2221, 2224, 2226
    2. Alitalia v. IAC, 192 SCRA 9
    3. Saludo v.Court of Appeals, 207 SCRA 498
    4. Japan Airlines v. Court of Appeals, 294 SCRA 19
    5. Savellano v. Nodhwest, 405 SCRA 416 (GR 151783; 7/8/03)
  2. Attorney’s Fees and Interest
    1. 2208, 2210
  3. Code of Commerce Provisions on Overland Transportation
    1. Scope of Overland Transportation
    2. Nature of Contract
      1. 349
    3. Effect of Civil Code
      1. 1766, 2270, Civil Code
    4. Contract of Carriage
      1. Bill of Lading
        1. Definition, Subject Matter
          1. 352
        2. Form, Contents
          1. 350, 351
        3. Function
          1. 353
  1. Refusal to Transport
    1. 356
  2. Doubtful declaration of contents
    1. 357
  3. No Bill of Lading
    1. 354, 51
  4. Responsibility of the Carrier
    1. When it commences
      1. 355
    2. Route
      1. 359
    3. Care of Goods
      1. 361, 362
      2. 1734, 1735, Clvll Code
    4. Delivery
      1. Condition of Goods
        1. 363, 367
      2. To Whom Delivery Made
        1. 368
  1. When to be made Arts. 370, 358
    1. Rights and Obligations or Shipper and/or Consignee
      1. Right to damages
        1. Condition imposed on right
          1. 366, 357
        2. Amount of damages for Ioss
          1. 372, Art. 1744, Civil Code
        3. Amount of damages for delay
          1. 371(3)
  1. Right to abandon
    1. 371, 370, 365, 363
  2. Right to change consignment
    1. 360
  3. Obligation to pay transportation charges
    1. 374, 375, 376
    2. 2241(9), Civil Code
  4. Obligation to return bill of lading
    1. 353(2)
  5. Applicability of Provisions, Art. 379
  1. Admiralty and Maritime Commerce
    1. Concept of Admiralty; Jurisdiction over Admiralty Cases
      1. Batas Pambansa Blg. 129, Sec. 19(3), Sec. 33(I), as amended by RA 7691
      2. International Harvester v. Aragon,-B4& Phil 363
    2. Vessels
      1. Meaning
        1. Lopez v Duruelo 52 Phil 229
      2. Nature and acquisition of
        1. 712, Civil Code
      3. Registration; certificates issued; distinctions
        1. Republic Act 9295, Section 10(I)
      4. Significance of registration of transactions affecting vessels
        1. Arroyo v. Yu, 54 Phil 511
        2. Rubiso v. Rivera, 37 Phil 72

 

  1. Persons Participating in Maritime Commerce
    1. Shipowners and ship agents
      1. 586 to 608; 618
      2. Standard Oil v. Castelo, 42 Phil 256
        1. Responsibilities and liabilities
          1. Yu Con v. lpil, 41 Phil 770
          2. Manila Steamship v Abdulhaman , 100 Phil 32
          3. Wing Kee Compradoring Co. v. Bark “Mononhaela Phil 464
          4. National Development Company V. Court Of Appeals, G.R. No. L-4940 7, August 19, 1988
        2. The doctrine of limited liability
          1. 587
          2. Manila Steamship v. Abdulhama n, supra
          3. Yangco v. Laserna, 73 Phil 330
          4. Abueg v. San Diego, 77 Phil 730
          5. Aboitiz Shipping v. General Accident Fire and Life Assurances., 217 SCRA 3359 (GR 100446; 1/21/93)
          6. Adoitiz Shipping v. General Accident Fire and Life Assurance Corporation, Ltd., 569 SCRA 294 (GR 121833; 10/17/200 8)
        3. Specific Rights and prerogatives
          1. 575, 593, 594, 596, 601
  1. Captains and Master
    1. Qualifications and licensing
      1. 609
      2. RA 9295, Sec. 9
      3. RA 10635, Secs. 3 and 4
      4. 1978 STCW Convention (with 2010 Manila Amendments), Annex, Chapter II
      5. Additional readings
        1. MARINA Circular No. 2012-04 and 2012-06
        2. MARINA STCW Circular Nos. 2014-10 and 2014-12
        3. STCW Code, Part A, Chapter II, Section s A-II and A-VI
      6. Powers and Duties
        1. 610, 611, 612, 622, 624. 625
        2. Inter Orient v. NLRC, 235 SCRA 269
      7. Prohibited acts and transactions
        1. 613, 614, 615, 617, 621, 583
  1. Other Officers and Crew
    1. Qualifications and licensing
      1. RA 10635, Secs. 3 and 4
      2. 1978 STCW Convention (with 2010 Manila Amendments), Annex, Chapters III to VI
      3. Additional readings:
        1. MARlNA Circular No. 2012-04 and 20f2-06
        2. MARINA STCW Circular NOS. 2014-06 and 2014-08, 2014-09, 2014-11 and 2014-13
        3. STCW Code, Part A, Chapters II tO VIII
      4. Contracts and formalities
        1. 634
      5. Duties and liabilities
        1. 635
      6. Rights
        1. 636 to 647
  1. Supercargoes
    1. 649-651
  2. Accidents and Damages in Maritime Commerce
    1. Averages
      1. Nature and Kinds
        1. Arts B06 to 808
      2. Simple or Particular
        1. Defined
          1. 809
        2. Effects
          1. 810
        3. Gross or Genera
          1. Defined
            1. 811, 817, 818
          2. Essential Requisites
            1. 813, 814, 860, 612
            2. Magsaysay Inc. v. Agan, 96 Phil 504
          3. Effects
            1. 812
          4. Jettison
            1. 815, 816
          5. Jason Clauses
            1. See York-Antwerp Rules, Rule D
  1. Arrival Under Stress
    1. Causes
      1. 819 and 820
    2. Formalities
      1. 819, 822, 612
    3. Expenses
      1. 821, 822
    4. Responsibility of Captain
      1. B23 – 825
  1. Collisions
    1. Classes and Effects
      1. Fortuitous
        1. 830, 832
      2. Culpable
        1. 826, 827 and 831, NOTE: Art. 612
      3. Inscrutable Fault
        1. 828
      4. Urrutia & Co. v. Baco River Plantation Co., G.R.No. 7675, March 25, 1913
      5. Government v. Philippine Steamship Co., Inc. G.R. No. f8957, January 16, 1923
      6. Smith Bell and Company v. Court of Appeals, G.R. No. 56294, May 20, 1991
  1. Shipwrecks
    1. 840 to 843, 612
      1. Salvage Law (Act No. 2616)
        1. Eriangar & Galingar v. Swedish East Asiatic Co. Ltd. 34 Phil 178 (GR 10051)
        2. Atlantic, Gulf & Pacific Company v. Uchida Kisen Kaisha, G.R. No. L-15871, November 7, 1921 (also for admiralty or maritime commerce)
        3. Barrios v. Go Thong, 7 SCRA 535
  1. Special Contracts of Maritime Commerce
    1. Charter Parties
      1. Definition
      2. Kinds
        1. Planters Product S V. CA, supra
        2. Coastwise Lighterage Corp. v. CA, 245 SCRA 796
        3. Caltex Philippines v. Sulpicio Lines, 315 SCRA 709
      3. Loans on Bottomry and Respondentia
        1. Loan on Bottomry, defined
        2. Loan on Respondentia, defined
        3. Character of Loan
          1. 719
  1. Bill of Lading
    1. Contents
      1. 706, 707, 713, 714
    2. Probative Value
      1. 709, 710
      2. Magellan Manufacturing Marketing Corporation v. Court of Appeals, et al., 201 SCRA 102 (GR 95529)
  1. Passenger on Sea Voyage
    1. Nature of Contracts
      1. 695
    2. Obligations of Passengers
      1. 693, 699, 704, 694, 700
    3. Rights of Passengers
      1. 697. 698
      2. Sweet Lines v. CA, 121 SCRA 769
      3. Trans-Asia Shipping v. CA, 254 SCRA 260
  1. Carriage of Goods by Sea Act
    1. Eastern Shipping v. IAC, 150 SCRA 463
    2. Ang v. American Steamship Agencies, 19 SCRA 123
    3. H Stevens v. Nordeutscher, 6 SCRA 180
  2. Air Transportation
    1. International Air Transportation
      1. Constitutionality
        1. Santos v. Northwest, 210 SCRA 256
      2. When applicable
        1. 1(1)
      3. Liabilities under the Convention
        1. Art 17, 1B 19
        2. Northwest v Cuenca, 14 SCRA 1063
        3. Alitalia v. IAC, 192 SCRA 10
      4. Limitations on Liability
        1. Art 22
        2. Pan Am v. IAC, 164 SCRA 268
      5. When limitations unavailable
        1. Art 3, 25
        2. TWA v CA, 165 SCRA 143
      6. Conditions on Imposition of Liability Art. 26, 2B, 29
        1. Santos v. Northwest, 210 SCRA 256
        2. Luna v. Court of Appeals, 216 SCRA 107
        3. Lhuillier v. British Airways, G.R. No. 171092, March 15, 2010
        4. PAL v. Savillo, G.R. No. 149547, Juiy 4, 2008
        5. United Airlines v Uy, G.R.No. 127768, November 19, 1999
      7. Passenger Rights
        1. Joint OTC-DTI Administrative Order No. 01, series of 2012

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